SemesterFall Semester, 2023
DepartmentPhD Program of Political Science, First Year PhD Program of Political Science, Second Year
Course NameEmpirical Political Theory and Methodology
Course TypeSelectively
Course Objective
Course Description
Course Schedule

On average you should devote 10 hours each week to this class.

Week 1    Introduction

                Wickham and Grolemund. 2023. R for Data Science. 2nd ed.

                Pollock and Edwards. 2019. A Stata Companion to Political Analysis, 4th ed.


Political Science And Methodology In Perspective


 Integration of Theory and Empirics


Week 2            Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapters 1~3.

Granato, Lo and Wong, 2021 “The EITM Framework.” Chapter 3 in EITM in Political Science.

Box-Steffensmeier, Janet, Henry E. Brady, and David Collier. 2008. “Political Science Methodology.” Pp. 3-31 in The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology ed. Janet Box-Steffensmeier, Henry E. Brady, and David Collier. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Recommended readings:

     Granato, Jim and Frank Scioli. 2004. “Puzzles, Proverbs, and Omega Matrices: The Scientific and Social Significance of Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models (EITM).” Perspectives on Politics 2(2): 313-323.


Homework: find the latest issue of the following journals, print table of contents, read abstract of each article and then classify each article according to its subfield and methodology


                              American Political Science Review (APSR)

Political Analysis (annual from 1989 to 1998; quarterly since volume 8, winter 2000). Homepage of the Society for Political Methodology and the Political Methodology Section of the APSA:



I.     The Structuring of Empirical Inquiry


  1. General Research Design (I): Units of Observation & Levels of Analysis

Week 3-4    黃紀,2023,〈第2  調查研究設計〉,載於《民意調查》(read pp. 31-46)


13(5): 541-574

Robinson, W. S. 1950. “Ecological Correlations and the Behavior of Individuals.” American Sociological Review 15(3): 351-357.

King, Gary, Ori Rosen, and Martin A. Tanner. 2004. “Information in Ecological Inference: An Introduction.” Pp. 1-12 in their Ecological Inference: New Methodological Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

King, Gary, and Molly Roberts. 2016. “R Package ‘ei’ User’s Manual.”

Tam Cho, Wendy K., and Charles F. Manski. 2008. “Cross-Level/Ecological Inference.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology. Pp. 547-569.



黃紀、吳重禮,2003,〈政治分析與研究方法:論2002年立法院行使考試院正副院長同意權之投票模式〉,《問題與研究》,42(1): 1-17

黃紀、周應龍,2013,〈2012年總統與立委併選的一致與分裂投票〉,載於 陳陸輝 主編《2012年總統與立委選舉:變遷與延續》,台北:五南圖書出版公司,第4章,

Recommended readings:

King, Gary. 1997. A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Plescia, Carolina. 2016. Split-Ticket Voting in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: A Theoretical and Methodological Investigation. UK: ECPR Press.


  1. General Research Design (II): Time Dimension

Week 5 黃紀,2023,〈第2  調查研究設計〉(read pp. 47-62)

Huang, Chi. 2019. “Generation Effects? Evolution of Independence-Unification Views in Taiwan, 1996-2016.” Electoral Studies 58: 103-112.


Hill, Martha S. 1992. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID): A User’s Guide. Newbury Park: Sage. Pp. 1-11.

Panel Survey Data Archive: e.g. 黃紀、張卿卿,2023TIGCR-PPS PANEL 2018-2022.

            台灣政經傳播研究中心 TIGCR Archives


Recommended readings:

黃紀,2005,〈投票穩定與變遷之分析方法:定群類別資料之馬可夫鍊模型〉,《選舉研究》12(1): 1-37


II.    Spatial Theory, Empirical Models and Measurement


Week 6   Building Theories: A Spatial (Geometric) Perspective


                Downs. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy.


Riker, William H. and Peter C. Ordeshook. 1968 “A Theory of the Calculus of Voting.” APSR 62(1): 25-42.


Hinich and Munger. 1997. Analytical Politics. Chapters 1-5.


Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapter 4.


Recommended readings:



Enelow, James M. And Melvin J. Hinich. 1984. The Spatial Theor of Voting: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Congleton, Robert D. 2019. "Rational Choice and Politics." In The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice. Vol. 1, eds. Roger D. Congleton, Bernard Grofman and Stefan Voigt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 1.


Empirical Spatial Models


Week 7       Measuring the Electorate’s Ideal Points with Issue Scales: Classical Test Theory (CTT)


劉長萱,2015,〈古典測量理論〉,載 瞿海源 等,第10章。


Jackman, Simon. 2008. “Measurement.” in The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology. (Read pp. 119-135)


Armstrong, et al. 2021. Chapters 1 & 2.


Week 8       Measuring Ideal Points with Categorical Data: An Introduction to Item Response Theory (IRT)


王文中,2015,〈試題反應理論〉,載 瞿海源 等,第11章。


Jackman, Simon. 2008. “Measurement.” (Read pp. 135-139).


Thissen, David. 2015. "Psychometrics: Item Response Theory." In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), ed. James D. Wright. Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 436-9.


Recommended readings:

Huang, Chi, Hung-chung Wang, and Chang-chih Lin. 2013. “Knowledge of the Electoral System and Voting: Taiwan’s 2008 and 2012 Legislative Elections.” Issues & Studies 49(4): 1-45.


Week 9   Measuring Elites’ Ideal Points with Observed Choices


Poole, Keith T., and Howard Rosenthal. 1985. "A Spatial Model for Legislative Roll Call Analysis." American Journal of Political Science 29(2): 357-84.


Hare, Christopher, and Keith T. Poole. 2019. "Estimates of the Spatial Voting Model." In The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice. Vol. 2, eds. Roger D. Congleton, Bernard Grofman and Stefan Voigt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 40 (Read pp. 819-27).


Everson, Phil, Rick Valelly, Arjun Vishwanath, and Jim Wiseman. 2016. "NOMINATE and American Political Development: A Primer." Studies in American Political Development 30(2): 97-115.


Armstrong, et al. 2021.  Sections 5.1-5.3 & Section 6.4.


Recommended readings:

Clinton, Joshua, Simon Jackman, and Douglas Rivers. 2004. “The Statistical Analysis of Roll Call Data.” American Political Science Review 98(2): 355-70.


Poole, Keith T., and Howard Rosenthal. 2007. Ideology & Congress (Second, revised edition of Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting). New York: Taylor & Francis.


Imai, Kosuke, James Lo, and Jonathan Olmsted. 2016. "Fast Estimation of Ideal Points with Massive Data." American Political Science Review 110(4): 631-56.


Week 10  Congruence (or Divergence) between Elites & the Mass


Hare, Christopher, and Keith T. Poole. 2019. "Estimates of the Spatial Voting Model." (read pp. 827-32).


Jessee, Stephen A. 2009. “Spatial Voting in the 2004 Presidential Election.” American Political Science Review 103(1): 59-81.


Treier, Shawn, and D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2009. "The Nature of Political Ideology in the Contemporary Electorate." The Public Opinion Quarterly 73(4): 679-703.


Recommended readings:

Huang, Chi, Tzu-ching Kuo, Yu-heng Jung. 2021. “Public Policy Preferences Revealed in Referendum Voting: The Case of Taiwan.” In Taiwan: Environmental, Political and Social Issues, ed. Cal Clark, Alex Tan, and Karl Ho. NY: Nova Science.


Week 11  11/23       Midterm oral report



III.       Causality: Counterfactual Perspective


Causal Inference (1): Basics of the Counterfactual (or Rubin) Model


Week 12          黃紀,2010,〈因果推論與效應評估:區段識別法及其於「選制效應」之應用〉,《選舉研究》17(2): 103-134。(讀第12


Morgan, Stephen L. and Christopher Winship. 2015. “The Counterfactual Model.” Chapter 2 in Counterfactuals and Causal Inference.


Rubin, Donald B. 1974. “Estimating Causal Effects of Treatments in Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies.” Journal of Educational Psychology 66(5): 688-701.


Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapter 5: Sections 5.1 & 5.2.


Recommended readings:

Sekhon, Jasjeet S. 2008. “The Neyman-Rubin Models of Causal Inference and Estimation via Matching Methods.” Chapter 11 in The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology. Pp. 271-299.


Causal Inference (2):  Experimental Designs


Week 13          Campbell & Stanley, pp. 1-34.


Green, Donald P. 2022. “A Tour of Social Science Experiments.” Chapter 4 in Scoial Science Experiments: A Hands-on Introduction. Cambridge University Press.


Druckman and Green. 2021. “A New Era of Experimental Political Science.” Chapter 1 in Advances in Experimental Political Science.


Bansak, Kirk, et al. 2021. “Conjoint Survey Experiments.” Chapter 2 in Advances in Experimental Political Science. ed. Druckman & Green. Cambridge U Press.


Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapter 5: Sections 5.3.1 & 5.3.2.


Recommended readings:

黃紀,2017,〈TEDS網路調查實驗平台第一次測試報告〉,科技部專題研究計畫〈2016年至2020年「臺灣選舉與民主化調查」四年期研究規劃(1/4)〉(MOST 105-2420-H-004 -015 -SS4)。


Lavrakas, Paul J., Michael W. Traugott, Courtney Kennedy, Allyson L. Holbrook, Edith D. de Leeuw, and Brady T. West. 2019. Experimental Methods in Survey Research: Techniques that Combine Random Sampling with Random Assignment. Hoboken: Wiley.


Causal Inference (3):  Natural Experiment with Regression Discontinuity (RD)


Week 14              Dunning, Thad. 2012. Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences: A Design-Based Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 1-5;


Cattaneo, Matias D., Nicolas Idrobo and Rocio Titiunik. 2020. A Practical Introduction to Regression Discontinuity Designs: Foundations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Huang, Chi (黃紀). 2021. Youth Turnout in Referendums and Elections: Evidence from Regression Discontinuity Designs.Taiwanese Political Science Review《台灣政治學刊》25(2): 169-218.


Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapter 5: Sections 5.3.4 & 5.4.1..


Causal Inference (4):  Quasi-Experimental Designs with Interrupted Time Series


Week 15       Campbell & Stanley, pp. 34-61;


Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, Chapters 4-6;


黃紀、林長志,2013,〈併選對投票率的影響:因果效應分析〉,載於 陳陸輝 主編《2012年總統與立委選舉:變遷與延續》,台北:五南圖書,第3章,頁47-83


Huang, Chi, Ming-feng Kuo, and Hans Stockton. 2016. “The Consequences of MMM on Party Systems.” Chapter 1 in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems in Constitutional Context: Taiwan, Japan, and Beyond, eds. Nathan Batto, Chi Huang, Alexander Tan, and Gary Cox. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.


Causal Inference (5):  Differences-in-Differences (DD)


Week 16       Angrist & Pischke, 2015. Chapter 5 “Differences-in-Differences”;


Card, David, and Alan B. Krueger. 1994. “Minimum Wages and Employment.” American Economic Review 84(4): 772-93.


Huang, Chi (黃紀). 2018. “Testing Partisan Effects on Economic Perceptions: A Panel Design Approach.” Journal of Electoral Studies《選舉研究》25(2): 89-115.


Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapter 5: Sections 5.3.3.


Recommended readings:

Abadie, Alberto, Alexis Diamond, and Jens Hainmueller. 2010. “Synthetic Control Methods for Comparative Case Studies: Estimating the Effect of California’s Tobacco Control Program.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 105(490): 493-505.



Causal Inference (6):  Instrumental Variables (IV)


Week 17            Angrist & Pischke, 2015. Chapter 3;


              Dunning, 2012, Chapters 4 and 5;




Sovey, Allison J. and Donald P. Green. 2011. “Instrumental Variables Estimation in Political Science: A Readers’ Guide.” American Journal of Political Science 55(1): 188-200.


Persson, Torsten and Guido Tabellini. 2003. The Economic Effects of Constitutions. Cambridge: The MIT Press.


Ashworth et al. 2021. Chapter 5: Sections 5.3.45


Week 18                    Term paper oral report


1/12            Term paper due


Teaching Methods
Teaching Assistant




Midterm oral report    10%

Term paper           50%

Participation           20%

Exercises & Quizzes    20%

Textbook & Reference

Armstrong, David A., et al. 2021. Analyzing Spatial Models of Choice and Judgment with R, 2nd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Ashworth, Scott, Christopher R Berry, and Ethan Bueno de Mesquita. 2021. Theory and Credibility: Integrating Theoretical and Empirical Social Science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Box-Steffensmeier, Janet, Henry E. Brady, and David Collier. eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, Donald T., and Julian C. Stanley. 1963. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  

Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.

Hinich, Melvin J., and Michael C. Munger. 1997. Analytical Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morgan, Stephen L., and Christopher Winship. 2015. Counterfactuals and Causal Inference: Method and Principles for Social Science, 2nd, edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Persson, Torsten and Guido Tabellini. 2003. The Economic Effects of Constitutions. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Wickham, Hadley, and Garrett Grolemund. 2023. R for Data Science: Import, Tidy, Transform, Visualize, and Model Data, 2nd edition. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly. 免費線上版 website: .


陳陸輝 主編,2023,《民意調查》,台北:五南。

瞿海源、畢恆達、劉長萱、楊國樞 主編2015,《社會及行為科學研究法(一):總論與量化研究法》,台北:東華書局。


Urls about Course
Taiwan's Election and Democratization Study (TEDS): (ICPSR 35094) Taiwan Institute for Governance & Communication Research (TIGCR): install_github("")

Empirical Political Theory _ Methodolgy 2023rev .pdf