SemesterSpring Semester, 2021
DepartmentMA Program of International Business, First Year MA Program of International Business, Second Year
Course NameAdvanced Seminar on WTO Law:dispute settlement
InstructorYANG PEI KAN
Course TypeElective
Course Objective
Course Description
Course Schedule





Topic 1: Introduction to WTO Dispute Settlement System/3h

  1. Introduction to the WTO Dispute Settlement System and Historic Development of the WTO Dispute Settlement System in Handbook, p. 1-16.

  2. John H. Jackson, Fragmentation or Unification among International Institutions: The World Trade Organization, 31 J. Int’l L. & Politics 823 (1998), pp. 823-831.

  3. Joost Pauwelyn, The Transformation of World Trade, 104 Mich. L. Rev. 1 (2005), pp. 1-9.



Topic 2: Stages and Process of WTO Dispute Settlement/3h

  1. The Process - Stages in a Typical WTO Dispute Settlement Case in Handbook, p. 43-75.

  2. William J. Davey, The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism (2003), at



Topic 3: Legal Basis and Types of WTO Complaints/3h

  1. Legal Basis for a Dispute in Handbook, p.28-37.

  2. Jim Durling and Simon Lester, Original Meanings and the Film Dispute: The Drafting History, Textual Evolution, and Application of the Non-Violation Nullification or Impairment Remedy, 32 Geo. Wash. J. Int'l L. & Econ. 211 (1999), pp.211-214; pp.2401-269.

  3. Joost Pauwelyn, A Typology of Multilateral Treaty Obligations: Are WTO Obligation Bilateral or Collective in Nature? 14 Eur. J. Int'l L. 907 (2003), p.907-9, p. 915-917, p. 941-945

  4. Understand on The Interpretation of GATT Article XXIV, para. 13-15 at



Topic 4: Jurisdiction and Possible Objects of a WTO Complaint/3h

  1. Possible Object of a Complaint – Jurisdiction of Panels and the Appellate Body in Handbook, pp. 38-42.

  2. Alan Yanovich and Tania Voon, What is the Measure at Issue? in Andrew D. Mitchell, Challenges and Prospects for the WTO, Cameron May Ltd. (2005), pp. 115-131.

  3. Gary N. Horlick & Glenn R. Butterton, A Problem of Process in WTO Jurisprudence: Identifying Disputed Issues in Panels and Consultations, 31 Law & Pol’y Int’l Bus. 573 (2000), pp. 573-582.



Topic 5: Sources of Law and Treaty Interpretation/3h

  1. Dsavid Palmeter and Petros Mavroidis, The WTO Legal System: Sources of Law, 92 Am. J. Int'l L. 398 (1998), pp.398-413.

  2. Michael Lennard, Navigating by the Stars: Interpreting the WTO Agreements, 5 J. Int'l Econ. L. 17 (2002), pp. 17-79.

  3. Joost Pauwelyn, Reply to Joshua Meltzer, 25 Mich. J. Int’l L. 924 (2004).



Topic 6: WTO Laws, National Laws and Other International Laws/3h

  1. John H. Jackson, Status of Treaties in Domestic Legal Systems: A Policy Analysis, 86 Am. J. Int'l L. 310 (1992), pp.310-340.

  2. Joost Pauwelyn, How to Win a WTO Dispute Based on non-WTO Law, 37:6 Journal of World Trade 997 (2003), p. 1005-1019.

  3. Joel Trachtman, The Domain of WTO Dispute Resolution, 40 Harv. Int'l L.J. 333 (1999), p. 333-377.

  4. Joost Pauwelyn, The Role of Public International Law in the WTO: How Far Can We Go?, 95 Am. J. Int'l L. 535 (2001), p.535-578.

  5. Joost Pauwelyn, Bridging Fragmentation and Unity: International Law as a Universe of Inter-connected Islands, 25 Mich. J. Int'l L. 903 (2004), pp.913-916.



Topic 7: Players in WTO Dispute Settlement (I): Dispute Settlement Body, Expert and Appellate Body/3h

  1. WTO Bodies Involved in the Dispute Settlement Process in Handbook, p. 17-27, 97-100.

  2. Joost Pauwelyn, The Use of Experts in WTO Dispute Settlement, 51 Int’l & Comp. L. Q. 325 (2002), at, pp.325-364.

  3. The Rules of Conduct for WTO Dispute Settlement.

  4. James Bacchus, Table Talk: Around the Table of the Appellate Body of the WTO, 35 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 1021 (2002), pp.1021-1039.

  5. John Kingery, Commentary: Operation of Dispute Settlement Panels, 31 Law & Pol’y Int’l Bus. 665 (2000), pp.665-673.



Topic 8: Players in WTO Dispute Settlement (II): Third Parties, NGOs and Private Attorney/3h

  1. Participation in Dispute Settlement Proceedings, in Handbook, p. 97-100.

  2. Petros Mavroids, Amicus Briefs before the WTO: Much ado About Nothing? Jean Monnet Working Paper 2/01, at, pp.1-17.

  3. Joseph Weiler, The Rule of Lawyers and the Ethos of Diplomats: Reflections on the Internal and External legitimacy of WTO Dispute Settlement, 35 Journal of World Trade 191 (2001), p.193-200.

  4. Jessica C. Pearlman, Participation by Private Counsel in World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Proceedings, 30 Law & Pol’y Int’l Bus. 399 (1999), pp.399-415.

  5. Philip M. Nichols, Extension of Standing in World Trade Organization Disputes to Nongovernment Parties, 17 U. Pa. J. Int’l Econ. L. 295 (1996), pp.295-329.



Topic 9: Procedural Issues (I): Standing, Burden of Proof and Role of Precedent/3h

  1. Legal Issues Arising in WTO Dispute Settlement Proceedings in Handbook, p. 101-108.

  2. Joost Pauwelyn, Evidence, Proof and Persuasion in WTO Dispute Settlement, Who Bears the Burden? 1 J. Int’l Econ. L. 227 (1998), pp.227-229, 233-235, 237-246, 252-258.

  3. Philip M. Nichols, Two Snowflakes are Alike: Assumptions Made in the Debate over Standing before the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Boards, 24 Fordham Int'l L.J. 427 (2000), pp.427-443.

  4. Adrian T. L. Chua, Precedent and Principles of WTO Panel Jurisprudence, 16 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 171 (1998), pp.171-196.



Topic 10: Procedural Issues (II): Judicial Economy and Standard of Review/3h

  1. Steven Croley & John Jackson, WTO Dispute Procedures, Standard of Review and Deference to National Governments, 90 Am. J. Int'l L. 193 (1996), p.193-213.

  2. Stefan Zleptnig, The Standard of Review in WTO Law: A Analysis of Law, Legitimacy and the Distribution of Legal and Political Authority, at

  3. Mattthias Oesch, Standards of Review in WTO Dispute Resolution, 6 J. Int'l Econ. L. 635 (2003), pp.635-659.



Topic 11: Remedies in WTO Dispute Settlement

  1. Implementation by the “Losing” Member, Legal Effect of Panel and Appellate Body Reports and DSB Recommendations and Rulings and Dispute Settlement without Recourse to Panels and the Appellate Body in Handbook, p. 74-87, 88-91, 92-96.

  2. Petros C. Mavroidis, Remedies in the WTO Legal System: Between a Rock and a Hard Place, 11:4 Eur. J. Int'l L. 763 (2000), p.763-766, 774-813.

  3. Joost Pauwelyn, Enforcement and Countermeasures in the WTO: Rules are Rules - Toward a More Collective Approach, 94 Am. J. Int'l L. 335 (2000) p. 335-347.

  4. Mark Movsesian, Enforcement of WTO Rulings: An Interest Group Analysis, 32 Hofstra L. Rev. 1 (2003), p.1-21.

  5. Steve Sharnovitz & Jason Kearns, Adjudicating Compliance in the WTO, 5 J. Int'l Econ. L. 331 (2002), pp.331-352.



Topic 12: Calculation and Selection of Trade Sanctions/3h

  1. Marco Bronckers & Naboth van den Broeck, Financial Compensation in the WTO: Improving the Remedies of WTO Dispute Settlement, 8 J. Int'l Econ. L. 101 (2005), p.101-126.

  2. Warren Schwartz & Alan Sykes, The Economic Structure of Renegotiation and Dispute Resolution in the WTO, 31 J. Legal Stud. 179 (2002), p.179-204.

  3. EC-Hormone beef arbitrationUS-FSC arbitration; US-Byrd arbitration

  4. Joost Pauwelyn, How Binding Are WTO Rules? A Transatlantic Analysis of International Law, at


Topic 13: Proposed Reform of WTO Dispute Settlement System/3h

  1. Select one of WTO Members’ reform proposal on WTO website under the document title TN/DS/W/ and provide your written comment.

  2. Judith Hippler Bello, The WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding: Less is More, 90 Am. J. Int'l L. 416 (1996), pp.416-418.

  3. Kim Van der Borght, The Review of the WTO Understanding on Dispute Settlement: Some Reflections on the Current Debate, 14 Am. U. Int’l L. Rev. 1223 (1999), pp.1223-1243.

  4. Donald McRae, What is the Future of WTO Dispute Settlement? 7 J. Int;l Econ. L. 3 (2004).


Case Study (I): China Currency Case/3h


  1. Japan – Film (WT/DS44)

  2. IMF Executive Board Concludes 2005 Article IV Consultation with the People's Republic of China, Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 05/122, September 12, 2005, at


Case Study (II): Sweat Biscuits Case/3h


  1. Canada – Dairy (WT/DS103, 113)

  2. EC – Sugar (WT/DS265, 266, 283)

  3. US – Cotton (WT/DS267)


Case Study (III): Diamonds Case/3h


  1. Section I, Definitions, of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, at

  2. Decision by the WTO Council for Trade in Goods recommending that the WTO General Council grants the waiver, see WTO news item at WTO document G/C/W/432/Rev.1, dated 24 February 2003. 


In-Class Presentations and Discussions/3h


In-Class Presentations and Discussions/3h

Teaching Methods
Teaching Assistant



Grading will be based 20% on class participation and discussion, 50% on submission of five reaction papers on relevant topics, and 30% on an in-class presentation of an assigned or self-selected WTO case together with a completion of term paper. The paper should be an original work based on the assigned or selected WTO case in compliance with appropriate citation rules. Students may otherwise choose to join an in-class moot court competition based on assigned hypothetical cases instead of submitting a term paper.

Textbook & Reference

Reading materials are listed below. The Handbook is the required reading for this class. Additional readings including summarized version of WTO cases may be handed out in class if I find it is necessary for discussion. Students are encouraged to prepare following textbooks for further self-study:

(1) A WTO Secretariat Publication, A Handbook on the WTO Dispute Settlement System, Cambridge University Press (2004);

(2) David Palmeter and Petros C. Mavroidis, Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization, Practice and Procedure, Cambridge University Press, 2ed (2004);

(3) Chang-fa Lo (羅昌發), International Trade Law (國際貿易法), Angel Publishing Ltd. (元照), 1999.

(4) Tasi-yu Lin, (林彩瑜)WTO Law and Practice (WTO制度與實務)Angel Publishing Ltd. (元照)2011.

Urls about Course (official website of the World Trade Organization); (case summaries); (Bureau of Foreign Trade, Taiwan, R.O.C.); (official US government trade website); (official trade site of the European Commission); (Duke Law Library’s own Research Guide to the GATT/WTO).