SemesterSpring Semester, 2021
DepartmentThe International Master Program of Applied Economics and Social Development (IMES) , First Year The International Master Program of Applied Economics and Social Development (IMES) , Second Year
Course NameEthnobotany of the Asia-Pacific Region
InstructorHOLM DAVID LEOPOLD
Credit3.0
Course TypeElective
Prerequisite
Course Objective
Course Description
Course Schedule

Weekly topics:



 



1      Introductory



2      Traditional Naming and Classification of Plants: Objectivist Approaches



3      Traditional Naming and Classification of Plants: Culture-based Approaches



4      Indigenous Languages and Plant Names



5      Plant Classification and Plant Anatomy: Theory



6      Plant Classification and Plant Anatomy: Workshop



7      Traditional Gathering and Cultivation Techniques



8      Care of Samples and Specimens



9      Plant Lore and Transmission of Traditional Knowledge



10    Plants for Clothing, Fibre, and Dyeing



11    Practicum: Wulai Atayal weaving



12    Plants for Food



13    Practicum: Millet and other Grains



14    Plants for Medicine



15    Plants for Building



16    Practicum: student choice of topic



17    Archaeology of Plant Use in the Indo-Pacific Region



18    Final Reports



 



Weekly Topics and Readings



 



1      Introductory



 



Ethnobotany is an academic discipline that investigates the classification and uses of plants in traditional societies, including those of indigenous peoples. It is a cross-disciplinary field, encompassing botany, ethnology and anthropology, linguistics, and archaeology. More particularly it focusses on cognitive anthropology as a branch of linguistics, and on the study of material cultures in ethnology and anthropology.



 



Required reading:



 



Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino et al. (2017). Ethnobotany for Beginners, Springer International Publishing AG, Chapter 1 ‘History and concepts’, pp. 1-15.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Edward F. Anderson, Plants and People of the Golden Triangle: Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1993, selected chapters.



 



William Foley, Anthropological Linguistics: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997, Chapter 5 ‘Cognitive Anthropology’, pp. 106-130.



 



Ford, Richard I., Michael F. Brown, Mary Hodge and William L. Merrill, eds. (1978). The Nature and Status of Ethnobotany, Ann Arbor, MI: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 29-49.



 



2      Traditional Naming and Classification of Plants: Objectivist Approaches



 



Theory in Ethnobotany exhibits two main tendencies, one emphasising human universals in cognition and plant naming practices, and the other exploring connections with specific cultures, technologies, and uses of plants. In this week we will look at the former, ‘objectivist’ approach.



 



Required readings:



 



Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove and Peter H. Raven (1973), ‘General Principles of Classification and Nomenclature in Folk Biology’, American Anthropologist 75: 214-42. 



 



Recommended readings:



 



Wierzbicka, Anna (1985). Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis, Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers, selected chapters.



 



Berlin, Brent (1992). Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies, Princeton: Princeton University Press, selected chapters.



 



3      Traditional Naming and Classification of Plants: Culture-based Approaches



 



In this week we will concentrate on theoretical approaches that emphasise the culture-specific aspects of plant classification practices, and their relationship with agricultural, medical, and other uses of plants in the immediate social environment.



 



Required readings:



 



Hunn, E. (1985). ‘The Utilitarian Factor in Folk Biological Classification’, in J. Dougherty, ed., Directions in Cognitive Anthropology, Urbana: University of Iliinois Press.



 



Brown, C.H. (1990). ‘A Survey of Category Types in Natural Language’, in S.L. Tsohatzidis, ed., Meanings and Prototypes: Studies in Linguistic Categorization, London: Routledge, pp. 17-47.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Brown, Cecil H. (1984). Language and Living Things, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, selected chapters.



 



Taylor, P.M. (1984). ‘“Covert categories” reconsidered: identifying unlabelled classes in Tobelo folk biological classification’, Journal of Ethnobiology 4:405-422.



 



4      Indigenous Languages and Plant Names



 



There is a wide variety of indigenous and local languages spoken in the Indo-Pacific area, including languages of the Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, Austroasiatic, Indo-European, and Trans-New Guinea language families. This week we will have a preliminary look at the plant naming system and uses of plants in a Taiwan aboriginal society.



 



Required reading:



 



Dong Jingsheng 董景生, Wang Guangyu 王光玉, and Lin Lijun 林麗君, Green Klesan Lüse geleishan: Nan’ao Taiya de minzu zhiwu 綠色葛蕾扇:南澳泰雅的民族植物, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, 2nd ed. mg 99 [2010], selected chapters.



 



Recommended reference:



 



Egerod, Søren, Atayal-English dictionary; edited by Jens Østergaard Petersen, 2nd edn., Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab = The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 1999.



 



5      Plant Classification and Plant Anatomy: Theory



 



An essential skill in ethnobotanical research is the capacity to identify plants in the field, and draw connections between local names and uses of plants and their scientific names and classification in the botanical literature. This week will provide a brief review of botanical classification and introduction to the essentials of plant anatomy and anatomical description.



 



Required readings:



 



Crang, Richard, Sheila Lyons-Sebaski, and Robert Wise (2018). Plant Anatomy: A Concept-Based Approach to the Structure of Seed Plants, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, selected chapters.



 



Heywood, V. H. (1976). Plant taxonomy, London: Edward Arnold, selected chapters.



 



Recommended references:



 



Qian Mingdan 錢明丹, ed. Ying-Han Han-Ying zhiwuxue cihui shouce 英漢漢英植物學詞彙手冊, An English-Chinese Chinese-English Glossary of Botany, Shanghai: Shanghai waiyu jiaoyu chubanshe, 2012.



 



Liu Tangrui 劉棠瑞, Zhiwu fenleixue 植物分類學 Plant taxonomy, Taipei: Guoli bianyiguan 國立編譯館 1984, selected chapters.



 



Liu Tangrui 劉棠瑞, ed.-in-chief, Zhiwuxue cidian 植物學辭典, Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu yinshuguan, 1972.



 



6      Plant Classification and Plant Anatomy: Workshop



 



This week will be a practice run at plant identification and anatomical description, based on actual samples collected locally. A range of guidebooks and other tools (e.g. phone apps) will be introduced.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Liu Tangrui劉棠瑞, ‘Introduction’, pp. 13-42 in Liu Tangrui, Shumuxue 樹木學, vol.1, Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu yinshuguan, 1980.



 



See Bibliography section.



 



7      Scientific Gathering and Cultivation Techniques



 



In this week we look at collection and cultivation methods in field botany and in botanical gardening. A key focus will be methods for the collection and preservation of whole plant specimens, and transplanting techniques.



 



Required readings:



 



Martin, Gary J. (2004). Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, London: Routledge, Chapter 2, ‘Botany’, pp. 27-66.

 



Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino et al. (2017). Ethnobotany for Beginners, Springer International Publishing AG, selected chapters.



 



Lawrence, Anna, and William Hawthorne (2006), Plant Identification, London and Sterling VA: Earthscan, selected chapters.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Liu Tangrui劉棠瑞, ‘Preparatory Knowledge for Learning Dendrology’, pp. 2-18 in Liu Tangrui, Shumuxue 樹木學, vol.1, Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu yinshuguan, 1980.



 



8      Care of Samples and Specimens



 



One component of field botany is the collection and preservation of sample plants collected in the field. Plant material can be collected either as live whole specimens or as plant parts, such as plant leaves, flowers or branches. Preservation techniques are important for confirming plant identity and for providing samples for more advanced identification by means of microscopic analysis and DNA testing, where appropriate.



 



Required readings:



 



Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino et al. (2017). Ethnobotany for Beginners, Springer International Publishing AG, selected chapters.



 



Lawrence, Anna, and William Hawthorne (2006), Plant Identification, London and Sterling VA: Earthscan, selected chapters.



 



9      Plant Lore and Transmission of Traditional Knowledge



 



In this week we will look at the ways in which knowledge is handed down from generation to generation, including general knowledge of the plant environment, techniques for the processing of plant material prior to use, and medicinal uses of plants.



 



Required readings:



 



Kerfant, Céline (2020). ‘Comparative study of the craft traditions in the Batanes islands (Philippines) and Lanyu (Taiwan, Republic of China) based on plant anatomy-



phytolith analysis and ethnobotany’, PhD dissertation, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Barcelona, relevant sections.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Meng Yuanyao (2006), The Names and Classification of Common Plants, Nanning: Guangxi minzu chubanshe, Appendix 2 ‘Zhuang Songs’, pp. 255-302, and Appendix 3 ‘The Story of the Snail Girl’, pp. 303-314.



 



Du Liping (2005). ‘Conditions for the production of traditional medicines’, in Du Liping, The Marketing of Traditional Medicines in China: the Case of Guangxi Province, Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, pp. 23-30.



 



10    Plants for Clothing, Fibre, and Dyeing



 



In this week we will look at the use of plants in one particular domain, that of fibre production for clothing, rope-making and so on. In particular, we will look at the fibre extraction, spinning, and weaving processes used among the various Taiwan aboriginal peoples, as well as the plants used both for cloth and for dyeing.



 



Required readings:



 



Chang, Chi-Shan et al. (2015). ‘A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry’, PNAS, 112 (44).



 



Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A. (2015). ‘Tracking Austronesian expansion into the Pacific via the paper mulberry plant’, PNAS, 112 (44).



 



Recommended readings:



 



Youma Dalu 尤瑪.達陸and Fang Junwei 方鈞瑋, Da’anxi liuyu Taiya zu zhibu jishu 大安溪流域泰雅族織布技法 Biru na Tminum Atayal weaving wisdom of the Atayal people in Ta'An River areas, Taidong: Taiwan shiqian bowuguan 臺灣史前博物館, 2016, selected chapters.



 



Luo Yu 羅鈺 and Zhong Qiu 鐘秋, Yunnan wuzhi wenhua: Fangzhi juan 雲南物質文化:紡織卷, Kunming: Yunnan jiaoyu chubanshe, 2000, pp. 58-76.



 



11    Practicum: Wulai Atayal weaving



 



Here we will apply the general knowledge covered in Week 10 to a field investigation of practices of Atayal weavers in the Wulai area.



 



Recommended reference:



 



Egerod, Søren, Atayal-English dictionary; edited by Jens Østergaard Petersen, 2nd edn., Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab = The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 1999.



 



12    Plants for Food



 



Plants are used for food both within general cropping systems and derived from traditional gathering practices in the surrounding environment. Plant material is also processed and made ready for consumption in a wide variety of ways. Plants are processed and consumed not just for mere sustenance, but also for what is seen as their nutritional value. The latter is connected with ambient concepts of health and wellness, which may be very different from concepts derived from modern science. Traditional peoples in the Indo-Pacific area are reliant to variant extents on farming practices, as opposed to hunting and gathering. This week will explore the uses of plants for food within this broader range of issues, and the way in which naming practices are related to use in food.



 



Required readings:



 



Anderson, Plants and People, Chapter 3 ‘Farming in the Hills’, pp. 47-65.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Meng Yuanyao, Names and Classification of Common Plants, Chapter 3 ‘Farming and Food’, pp.68-95.



 



David Bradley, ‘Phylogeny of Tibeto-Burman from Plants and Animals’, pp. 1-26.



 



13    Practicum: Millet and other Grains



 



This week will take an example of a grain crop that is important in the agricultural and ritual life of Taiwan aboriginal peoples. Readings will look at varieties of millet and their long history of cultivation. This investigation will be combined with fieldwork, and on-site investigation of millet cultivation.



 



Required readings:



 



Fogg WH (1983) ‘Swidden cultivation of foxtail millet by Taiwan aborigines: a cultural analogue of the domestication of Setaria italica in China’. in D. Keightley (ed.) The origins of Chinese civilization, 95-115. Berkeley: University of California Press.



 



Sagart, Laurent et al. (2017). ‘Austronesian and Chinese words for the millets’, Language Dynamics and Change 7(2).



 



Recommended readings:



 



Hanks, Lucien M. (1972). Rice and Man: Agricultural Ecology in Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.



 



14    Plants for Medicine



 



A wide variety of plants in the environment are used as medicines and as first aid. This aspect of plant lore is particularly rich among societies that are indigenous, or have inhabited a particular environment for generations. Correspondingly, dislocation of communities often results in the loss of this kind of knowledge. This week will explore this rich domain.



 



Required readings:



 



Martin, Gary J. (2004). Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, London: Routledge, Chapter 3, ‘Ethnopharmacology and related fields’, pp. 67-xx.

 



Anderson, Plants and People, Chapter 8 ‘Plants that Cure’, pp. 127-144, and ‘Appendix 2, Medicinal Plants Used by the Hill Tribes’, pp. 225-241.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Xiao Linrong 肖林榕 and Lin Duanyi 林端宜, eds-in-chief, Fujian minsu yu Zhongyiyao wenhua 福建民俗與中醫藥文化, Beijing: Kexue chubanshe, 2010, selected chapters.



 



15    Plants for Building



 



Typically traditional peoples in the Indo-Pacific area build houses and other shelters from readily available renewable materials, including bamboo species, wood from the forests, and rope made from fibre plants.



 



Required readings:



 



Anderson, Plants and People, Chapter 6 ‘Bamboo: From Cradle to Grave’, pp. 93-114, and Chapter 9 ‘Houses from the Forest’, pp. 145-157.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Meng Yuanyao, The Names and Classification of Common Plants, Chapter 8 ‘Bamboo’, pp. 193-223.



 



16    Practicum: student choice of topic



 



This week will offer students a further opportunity to explore some aspect of traditional plant use in the field. If appropriate, the topic could be related to the topics of students’ final reports.



 



Required reading:



 



Martin, Gary J. (2004). Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, London: Routledge, Chapter 1, ‘Data collection and hypothesis testing’, pp. 1-26.

 



Recommended readings:



 



See Bibliography.



 



17    Archaeology of Plant Use in the Indo-Pacific Region



 



Many cultivated and uncultivated plants have been widely dispersed from their original areas of origin, along with or following human migrations. Plant remains uncovered in archaeological sites are often used to develop and test hypotheses about plant dispersal. This week will cover a general review of the analytical techniques used, and look at several examples, such as taro, plantains, and ramie. Such evidence will then be discussed in light of ethnobotanical evidence from the field, regarding traditional naming practices and processing techniques.



 



Required readings:



 



Laurent Sagart, ‘The expansion of Setaria farmers in East Asia: a linguistic and archaeological model’, in Alicia Sanchez-Mazas, et al., eds., Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching archaeology, linguistics and genetics, London: Routledge, 2008, pp. 133-158.



 



Fuentes, Riczar (2020). ‘Stuck within notches: Direct evidence of plant processing during the last glacial maximum to Holocene in North Sulawesi’, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 30 (2020) 102207, 1-20.



 



Recommended readings:



 



Matthews, Peter J. (2014). On the Trail of Taro: An Exploration of Natural and Cultural History, Senri Ethnological Series 88, Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 2014, relevant sections.



 



Nguyen Mai Huong and Nguyen Anh Tuan, ‘Floral and Faunal Remains from Archaeological Sites in the Trang An Area’, Archaeology No.7 (2012), 52-64.



 



Sagart, Laurent, et al. (2018), ‘A northern Chinese origin of Austronesian agriculture: new evidence on traditional Formosan cereals’, Rice 11.



 



18    Final Reports



 



Students will give oral presentations on their final report projects.



 



 



Assessment



 



Book review report         10%



Mid-term project             20%



2nd book review report    10%



Class participation           10%



Final report                      50%


Teaching Methods
Teaching Assistant

not applicable


Requirement/Grading

This is a PhD-level course, and all students are expected to perform at an appropriately high level, in terms of conceptualisation, articulation and delivery. To be more specific:



90-100             Performance at a level appropriate for entry-level career academics or equivalent professionals: high-level grasp of subject matter, polished and logical exposition, and ample signs of original thinking.



80-90               Competent performance showing consistent grasp of subject matter, good articulation and exposition of arguments, and some signs of original thinking.



70-80               Broadly acceptable grasp of subject matter, some good articulation and exposition of arguments, but also problems with either arguments or exposition.



70 and below  Deficient in some respect: either poor understanding of subject matter, poor articulation and exposition, or demonstrably illogical or invalid reasoning.



0                      Evidence of plagiarism.


Textbook & Reference

Bibliography



 



Taiwan aboriginal ethnobotany reports (in Chinese and English):



 



Dong Jingsheng 董景生, Wang Guangyu 王光玉, and Lin Lijun 林麗君, Green Klesan Lüse geleishan: Nan’ao Taiya de minzu zhiwu 綠色葛蕾扇:南澳泰雅的民族植物, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, 2nd ed. mg 99 [2010].



 



Lu Dinghui 魯丁慧, Ke Yongnan 柯勇男, Lin Shengfeng 林聖峰, and Lu Xiangyu 陸象豫, Paiwanzu zhi zhiwu liyong 排灣族之植物利用 Plants Used by Paiwan in Taiwan, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, mg 100 [2011].



 



Lu Dinghui 魯丁慧, and Lu Xiangyu 陸象豫, Shaozu zhi zhiwu liyong 邵族之植物利用 Plants Used by Thao in Taiwan, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, mg 102 [2013].



 



Lu Dinghui 魯丁慧, Qiu Boying 邱柏瑩, Lin Shengfeng 林聖峰, and Lu Xiangyu 陸象豫, Zouzu zhi zhiwu liyong 鄒族之植物利用 Plants Used by Tsou in Taiwan, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, mg 100 [2011].



 



Dong Jingsheng 董景生, Huang Qirui 黃?瑞, Bangka’er 邦卡兒, and Hai Fangnan 海放南, Zoushan Lamu’an: Zhongyang shanmai Bunong minzu zhiwu 走山拉姆岸:中央山脈布農民族植物, Wander Lamuan: The Ethnobotany of Bunun in Formosan Central Ridge, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, 2008.



 



Dong Jingsheng 董景生, Huang Qirui 黃?瑞, Zhang Debin 張德斌, Posuo Yinawan: Lanyu Dawu de minzu zhiwu 婆娑伊那萬:蘭嶼達悟的民族植物, Pongso Inawan: The Ethnobotany of Tao on Orchid Island, Taipei: Xingzhengyuan Nongye weiyuanhui Linwuju 行政院農業委員會林務局, mg 102 [2013].



 



Chinese-language sources:



 



Guo Chengmeng 郭城孟 (2001). Juelei rumen 類入門, Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi.



 



Guo Chengmeng 郭城孟 (2011). Juelei tujian 圖鑒, 2 vols., Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi, 3rd edn.



 



Liu Tangrui 劉棠瑞, ed.-in-chief (1972). Zhiwuxue cidian 植物學辭典, Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu yinshuguan.



 



Liu Tangrui劉棠瑞 (1980). ‘Preparatory Knowledge for Learning Dendrology’, pp. 2-18 in Liu Tangrui, Shumuxue 樹木學, vol.1, Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu yinshuguan.



 



Liu Tangrui 劉棠瑞, (1984). Zhiwu fenleixue 植物分類學 Plant taxonomy, Taipei: Guoli bianyiguan 國立編譯館.



 



Liu Tangrui 劉棠瑞 and Su Hongjie 蘇鴻傑 (1983). Senlin zhiwu shengtaixue 森林植物生態學, Taipei: Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan.



 



Pan Fujun 潘富俊 (2003). Chuci zhiwu tujian 楚辭植物圖鑒, Shanghai: Shanghai shudian chubanshe.



 



Pan Fujun 潘富俊 (2001). Shijing zhiwu tujian 詩經植物圖鑒, Shanghai: Shanghai shudian chubanshe.



 



Pan Fujun 潘富俊 (2001). Tangshi zhiwu tujian 唐詩植物圖鑒, Shanghai: Shanghai shudian chubanshe.



 



Qilanshan juelei shengtai jieshuo shouce 棲蘭山蕨類生態解說手? (2011). ed. and pub. Xingzhengyuan Tuifuhui rongmin senlin baoyu shiye guanlichu 行政院退輔會榮民森林保育事業管理處, [Taipei].



 



Qian Mingdan 錢明丹, ed. (2012) Ying-Han Han-Ying zhiwuxue cihui shouce 英漢漢英植物學詞彙手冊, An English-Chinese Chinese-English Glossary of Botany, Shanghai: Shanghai waiyu jiaoyu chubanshe.



 



Qiu Shaojie , Peng Hongyuan (2008). Taiwan Kejia minzu zhiwu: yingyong pian 臺灣客家民族植物-應用篇, 2008.



 



Xiao Linrong 肖林榕 and Lin Duanyi 林端宜, eds-in-chief (2010). Fujian minsu yu Zhongyiyao wenhua 福建民俗與中醫藥文化, Beijing: Kexue chubanshe.



 



Zhang Dongzhu 張東柱 and Zhou Wenneng 周文能 (2005). Yegu rumen: jinru qimiao de daxing zhenjun shijie 野菇入門:進入奇妙的大型真菌世界, Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi.



 



Zhang Dongzhu 張東柱 and Zhou Wenneng 周文能 (2005). Yegu tujian 野菇圖鑒: 臺灣四百種常見大型真菌圖鑑 Mushrooms of Taiwan, Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi.



 



Zhang Yongren 張永仁 (2009). Yehua rumen 野花入門: 張永仁的野花觀察筆記 Amazing Wildflowers, Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi.



 



Zhang Yongren 張永仁 (2009). Yehua tujian 野花圖鑒, vol. 1. Pingdi di haiba pian 平地低海拔篇 Wild-flowers of Taiwan, Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi.



 



Zhang Yongren 張永仁 (2009). Yehua tujian 野花圖鑒, vol. 2. Zhong-gao haiba pian 中高海拔篇 Wild-flowers of Taiwan, Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi.



 



Zhang Zhishan 張至善 et al. (2019). ‘Yi shupi zuowei wenhua zaiti: shupihua, shupibu yu shupizhi jianjie’ 以「樹皮」作為文化載體:樹皮畫、樹皮布與樹皮紙簡介 (Using ‘Bark’ as a Cultural Carrier: an Introduction to Bark Painting, Bark Cloth and Bark Paper), Taiwan bowu jikan 臺灣博物季刊 38:3 (2019 / 09 / 01).



 



Zhongguo kexueyuan Zhiwu yanjiusuo 中國科學院植物研究所, ed. (1996). Xinbian La-Han-Ying zhiwu mingcheng 新編拉漢英植物名稱, Beijing: Hangkong gongye chubanshe.



 



Western language sources:



 



Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino, and Marcelo Alves Ramos, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros (2017). Ethnobotany for Beginners, Springer International Publishing AG.



 



Anderson, Edward F. (1993). Plants and People of the Golden Triangle: Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.



 



Atran, Scott (1985). ‘The nature of folk botanical life forms’, American Anthropologist 87: 298-315.



 



Atran, Scott (1990). Cognitive Foundations of Natural History, London: Cambridge University Press, 1990.



 



Berlin, Brent (1992). Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies, Princeton: Princeton University Press.



 



Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove and Peter H. Raven (1973), ‘General Principles of Classification and Nomenclature in Folk Biology’, American Anthropologist 75: 214-42, 



 



Berlin, Brent, and Paul Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.



 



Brown, Cecil H. (1984). Language and Living Things, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.



 



Brown, Cecil H. (1987). ‘The Folk Subgenus: A New Ethnobiological Rank’, Journal of Ethnobiology 7: 185-87.



 



Brown, C.H. (1990) ‘A Survey of Category Types in Natural Language’, in S.L. Tsohatzidis, ed., Meanings and Prototypes: Studies in Linguistic Categorization, London: Routledge, pp. 17-47.



 



Chang, Chi-Shan et al. (2015). ‘A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry’, PNAS, 112 (44).



 



Clément, D. (1998). ‘L’Ethnobiologie/Ethnobiology’, Anthropologica, XI, 1:7-35.



 



Conklin, Harold G. (1962). ‘The Lexicographic Treatment of Folk Taxonomies’, Journal of American Linguistics 28: 119-41.



 



Conklin, Harold G. (1954). The Relation of Hanunóo Culture to the Plant World.



 



Cotton, C.M. (1995). Ethnobotany: Principles and Applications, London: John Wiley and Sons.



 



Cunningham, Anthony B. (2001). Applied Ethnobotany: People, Wild Plant Use & Conservation, London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications Ltd.  



 



Crang, Richard, Sheila Lyons-Sebaski, and Robert Wise (2018). Plant Anatomy: A Concept-Based Approach to the Structure of Seed Plants, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.



 



Ellen, R.F. (1986). ‘Ethnobiology, cognition, and the structure of prehension’, Journal of Ethnobiology 6: 83-98.



 



Foley, William (1997). Anthropological Linguistics: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Chapter 5 ‘Cognitive Anthropology.



 



Ford, Richard I., Michael F. Brown, Mary Hodge and William L. Merrill, eds. (1978). The Nature and Status of Ethnobotany, Ann Arbor, MI: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.



 



Forsyth, Tim and Andrew Walker (2008). Forest Guardians, Forest Destroyers: The Politics of Environmental Knowledge in Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.



 



Greene, E.L. (1983 [1909]) Landmarks in Botanical History, ed. F.N. Egerton, Stanford: Stanford University Press.



 



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